The Environmental Impact of Microgreen Cultivation


The emergence of microgreens in our diets is more than just a culinary trend, it’s a step towards more sustainable farming practices.

These small, delicate plants that sprout from the seeds of vegetables and herbs and are harvested while they’re young and tender have garnered attention for their punchy flavor and high nutritional value. Yet, their appeal extends beyond the kitchen table, reaching as far as our environment.

Environmental Impact of Microgreen Farming

The environmental impact of any agricultural practice can be assessed across several key parameters including water and land use, pesticide application, and carbon footprint. When it comes to microgreens, these small, delicate plants harvested young and tender, have distinct advantages in each of these categories.

Reduced Water Usage

Microgreens have a significantly lower water footprint compared to mature vegetables and herbs. They can be grown hydroponically or in soil, but in either case, they require less water due to their short growing period.

Hydroponic systems, in particular, allow for water recycling, reducing overall water usage and waste. This conservation of water resources is crucial in maintaining a healthy ecosystem, especially considering the increasing global water scarcity.

Minimized Use of Pesticides and Chemicals

Microgreens are typically grown in controlled environments, such as greenhouses or indoor settings, which reduces the likelihood of pest infestation. Consequently, they often require fewer pesticides than conventional crops.

In addition, because microgreens are harvested so soon after germination, there’s less time for pests to become a problem, reducing the need for harmful chemicals. This contributes to safer food and a cleaner environment.

Land Use Efficiency

The land efficiency of microgreens is also notable. As they are small and compact, they can be grown in multi-tier systems, maximizing production in a small space. This vertical farming approach is ideal for urban areas where space is at a premium. It also helps to preserve biodiversity, as less land is converted from natural habitats to farmland.

Carbon Footprint and Transportation

Growing microgreens locally also reduces the carbon footprint associated with food transportation. Because they can be grown and harvested in urban environments, they often don’t need to be shipped long distances.

They can move from farm to table in the same day, reducing the need for refrigeration and long-term storage and contributing to a fresher, more nutrient-rich product. The proximity of microgreens farms to consumers also supports local food systems, generating jobs and creating economic opportunities in urban areas.

Soil Health and Biodiversity

Finally, the cultivation of microgreens promotes soil health and biodiversity. As the seeds of vegetables and herbs are used, a variety of plants are grown, contrasting with large-scale monoculture crops. This variety helps to maintain soil health, reducing the need for chemical fertilizers.

Also, because microgreens are often grown in controlled environments, they don’t contribute to soil erosion, a major issue in conventional agriculture.

Microgreen farming is an agricultural practice with notable environmental benefits. It represents a sustainable and viable option for farming in the 21st century, particularly in urban settings. To learn more about the practical aspects of growing microgreens, see our guide on how to harvest and store microgreens.

Different Ways of Microgreen Farming and Their Environmental Impact

When discussing the cultivation of microgreens, it’s important to highlight the different farming practices adopted and their respective environmental impacts. The two primary methods used for microgreen farming are soil-based and hydroponic systems, both with their unique characteristics and benefits.

Soil-Based Systems

In soil-based systems, microgreens are grown in organic or non-organic soil. This traditional farming method provides a natural, nutrient-rich environment for the microgreens. Since the nutrients are already present in the soil, it often eliminates the need for synthetic fertilizers.

As for water usage, while it’s greater than in hydroponic systems, it’s considerably lower than in traditional farming due to the small size and rapid growth cycle of microgreens.

However, there can be some environmental challenges with soil-based systems. They are potentially more prone to pest infestations, which might require the use of pesticides.

It’s also important to consider the source of the soil to ensure it’s not contributing to land degradation or deforestation.

Hydroponic Systems

Hydroponics is a method of growing plants without soil, instead using a water solution rich in essential minerals and nutrients. This method is particularly beneficial for microgreen farming in terms of environmental impact.

Hydroponic systems use significantly less water than soil-based systems. This is because the water in hydroponic systems is recirculated, leading to substantial water conservation. This is a critical advantage in regions where water is scarce or during periods of drought.

The controlled nature of hydroponics also minimizes the need for pesticides since the risk of soil-borne diseases is eliminated. Furthermore, hydroponic systems can be set up indoors or in urban settings, reducing the carbon footprint associated with transporting produce from rural to urban areas.

However, it’s important to note that hydroponic systems often rely on artificial lighting and temperature control, which could increase energy consumption. It’s vital to use energy-efficient systems and renewable energy sources where possible to mitigate this impact.

In both methods, microgreen farming has a significantly smaller environmental impact compared to traditional agriculture, thanks to the small land usage, reduced water needs, and limited need for chemicals.

The choice between soil-based and hydroponic systems depends on several factors, including resource availability, local climate, and the grower’s preferences.

Are Microgreens Sustainable?

Microgreens are increasingly recognized as a sustainable agricultural practice for several reasons. Their short growth cycle, small physical footprint, and adaptability to various farming systems contribute to their eco-friendly profile.

Short Growth Cycle

One of the key sustainability advantages of microgreens is their short growth cycle. These small, delicate plants are typically harvested just 7-14 days after germination when they’ve reached the cotyledon leaf stage.

This quick turnaround time means that microgreens can provide multiple harvests per year, even in a small space, enhancing productivity and reducing the need for large agricultural land expanses.

Shorter growth cycles also mean less water usage over time, which is beneficial in drought-prone areas or regions with limited water resources.

Small Physical Footprint

Microgreens require very little space to grow. They can be grown in stacked trays in controlled environments such as greenhouses or even indoors. This compact growing method reduces the need for large, open fields, minimizing land usage and associated environmental impacts like soil erosion and habitat loss.

Urban farming of microgreens takes this benefit even further. Growing microgreens in urban settings can help to decrease the carbon footprint associated with long-distance transportation of food.

For example, microgreens can be grown and sold in the same city, or even the same building, significantly reducing the emissions associated with shipping and transportation.

Versatile Farming Systems

Microgreens can be cultivated in various farming systems, including traditional soil-based and hydroponic systems. This versatility means that they can be adapted to different environmental and resource constraints, enhancing their overall sustainability.

For instance, in hydroponic systems, water is recirculated, leading to significant water savings – up to 90% less water is used compared to traditional agriculture.

Hydroponics also eliminates the need for soil, reducing the risk of soil-borne diseases and minimizing the need for pesticides and harmful chemicals.

Nutritional Value and Flavor

Aside from their environmental sustainability, microgreens are also nutritionally dense. They have been found to contain higher concentrations of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants compared to mature plants. This means that people can obtain significant nutritional value from a smaller quantity of microgreens.

Eating locally grown microgreens not only supports local food systems, jobs, and economic opportunities but also contributes to a balanced, healthy diet. Read more about the role of microgreens in a healthy diet.

Microgreens are a great example of sustainable farming practices, with their reduced water usage and waste, minimized use of pesticides and chemicals, promotion of biodiversity, growth in controlled environments, reduced carbon footprint through urban farming and proximity to consumers, and support for local food systems, jobs, and economic opportunities.

Myths Around Microgreens and Sustainability

Microgreens have seen an increasing surge in popularity due to their nutritional value, flavor, and sustainability. However, as with any trending topic, there are myths and misconceptions that can confuse the public and potential growers. Let’s debunk some of the common myths surrounding microgreens and sustainability.

Myth 1: Microgreens Require More Water than Traditional Crops

Microgreens actually require less water compared to traditional crops. They are typically harvested just after the cotyledon stage, which is a few days to a week after germination. Because of their short lifecycle, they require less water overall. When grown in controlled environments or through hydroponic systems, water usage can be reduced even further due to recycling.

Myth 2: Microgreens Contribute More to Carbon Emissions

The carbon footprint of microgreens is much lower than many people believe. Because they can be grown in urban environments and indoors, they often don’t need to be transported over long distances to reach consumers, which drastically reduces the carbon emissions associated with transportation and shipping. The vertical farming methods often employed for growing microgreens also maximize the use of space, allowing for more efficient energy use.

Myth 3: Microgreen Farming is Not Economically Sustainable

In fact, microgreen farming can present significant economic opportunities. The crop turnaround time is rapid, often just 1-2 weeks, allowing for multiple harvests in a single month. Moreover, as microgreens can be grown in small spaces, including urban settings, the start-up and maintenance costs can be significantly less than traditional farming. With the growing demand for local and nutritious food, microgreens can be a profitable venture.

Myth 4: Microgreens Require High Amounts of Pesticides

This is also a misconception. Microgreens are usually grown in controlled environments, which limit exposure to pests. As a result, they often require fewer pesticides than traditional crops. The short growth cycle also reduces the window of opportunity for pests to attack, further lowering the need for chemical intervention.

Myth 5: Growing Microgreens is Complex and Time-consuming

Microgreens are relatively easy and quick to grow, especially when compared to full-sized crops. They can be harvested within 1-2 weeks of planting and do not require complicated farming practices or machinery.


Microgreen farming is a new and interesting way to make farming better for our planet. It’s much better for the environment than old-style farming because it uses less water, uses fewer pesticides, and doesn’t create as much carbon pollution. Plus, it helps different types of plants and animals to thrive.

There are many ways to grow microgreens, each with its own pros and cons, but they all aim to grow healthy food without hurting our environment too much.

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